At A Glance PSYCHIATRY

*Father of Modern psychiatry Philippe Pinel

*Father of Psychoanalysis —  Sigmund freud

*Mental health act in India came into force in the year 1987.

*Term “Dementia precox” was coined by – Kraepelin

*DelusionFalse Belief

*Delusion is a disorder of – Thoght

*Delusion is not a feature of Conversion disorders.

*Hallucination — False perception without sensory stimulus

*Illusion — False perception with sensory stimulus  OR  Misinterpretation of a real sensory

stimulus

*Insight defines as awareness as self illness.

*Pnigerophobia – a fear of smothering or choking.

*Flooding is a treatment modality used in — Phobia

*Pavlov’s experiment is an example of classical conditioning.

*Ross classifed five stages of  Death.

*Autism means social and language communication problems.

*First rank symptoms of ‘Schizophrenia’ – Thought insertion

Thought broadcasting

Passivity feelings

Auditory Hallucinations

Delusional perceptions

*Eugen Bleuler’s 4 ‘A‘ of SchizophreniaAffect,  Autism, Ambivalence & Associations.

*Negative’ symptoms” of Schizophrenia —

Underactivity – which also affects speech.

Low motivation.

Social withdrawal.

Emotional flattening.

Self-neglect.

*Most common type of Schizophrenia is – Paranoid

*Worst prognosis is seen in which type of Schizophrenia Hebephrenic

*In Schizophrenia Increased dopaminergic activity.

*Emotional blunting (Flat or blunted affect) is a poor prognostic feature for Schizophrenia.

*Presence of depression is a good prognostic feature for Schizophrenia.

*Schizophrenia is more prevalent in patients having low socioeconomic status.

*Waxy flexibility, negativism & rigidity are features of – Catatonic schizophrenia.

 

*Drug of choice in obsessive compulsive neurosis is – Clomipramine

*Total score in Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) is 30.

*La belle indifference is seen in – Conversion Reaction

*A male child of 15 years, with a mental age of 9 years has an IQ of – 60.

*Korsakoff psychosis is diagnosed by – Impairment of short term memory

*Neurofibrillary tangles are associated with – Alzheimer’s disease.

*Pseudodementia is seen in – Depression.

*Greatest psychiatric burden in society is due to – Depression.

*Wernicke’s encephalopathy & Korsakoff’s psychosis is due to dficiency of — Thiamine.

*Classical triad of Wernicke’s encephalopathy GOA

Global confusion

Ophthalmoplegia

Ataxia

*Features of REM (Rapid Eye movement) Sleep

Dreaming

Generalized muscular atony

Increase pulse & BP

*EEG findings of REM Sleep Beta wave, Reappearence of alpha wave,

Saw-tooth wave (low voltage fast activity),

ponto-genital-occipetal spikes.

*Delta waves are not seen in REM sleep

*EEG rhythms are also called Berger’s waves.

*Alpha waves in EEG represent Eye closed with active mind

*Night walking (Somnambulism) — Occurs during stage 3-4 of NREM sleep.

 

*Kluver-Bucy syndrome Neuro-Behavioural syndrome caused by bilateral lesion in

anterior temopral horn or Amygdala.

*Features of kluver-bucy syndrome Hyperphagia, Hypersexuality, Emotional placidity

                                                                     and Visual agnosia.

*Folie-a-deux means — Sharing of Delusion

*Sublimation is — Mature defence mechanism.

*Quoad hanc means — Male impotent to particular women

*Treatment of resistant depression ECT (Electro Convulsive Therapy)

*Duration of symptoms for diagnosis of mania —  > 1 week

*Term ego & superego coined by — Sigmund Freud

*Ataxia abasia is seen in — Conversion disorders

*Rivastigmine & Donepezil used in treatment of — Dementia

*Locked-in syndrome occurs due to lesion at the level of — Ventral Pons (Basis pontis)

*Drugs used in treatment of Erectile dysfunction Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor

( Sildenafil, Tadalafil, Vardenafil )

Alprostadil (PGE1)

Papavarine

Apomorphine

Androgens

*Psychosurgery is used in — OCD ( Obsessive Compulsive Disorder )

*Suicide is most common in  — Depression

*Pnigerophobia – a fear of smothering or choking.

*Pyromania Pathological fire setting

*KleptomaniaPathological stealing

*TrichotillomaniaCompulsive hair pulling

*Capgras syndrome (Delusion of double) — Patient falsely identifies familiar person as stranger.

*Fregoli syndrome (Illusion de fregoli) — Patient falsely identifies stranger as familiar person.

*PagophagiaEating ice

*Geophagia Eating sand

*CoprophagiaEating feces

*Lithophagia Eating stones

*Absolute contraindication for Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) —

Head injury, Brain tumor, Cerebral  aneurysm

*DoppelgangerFeeling of double of oneself

*Othello syndrome Delusion of Jealousy

*De clerambault syndrome Delusion of love

*Bright light therapy is a treatment used for peoples who suffer from circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

*Weight loss is not a feature of — Bulimia Nervosa

*DapoxetineSSRI, used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

*Neurotransmitter in mood disorders

In Depression Decreased level of serotonin & norepinephrine.

In ManiaIncreased level of norepinephrine.

*Atypical antidepressants Trazodone, Venalafaxine, Mitrazapine, Mianserine, Duloxetine

*Permissible blood alcohol level during driving in India 30 mg %

*Deep brain stimulation is used in treatment of — Resistant depression