At A Glance

*Epidermis consist of four layers

–  Stratum basale / Stratum Germinatum ( Basal cell layer ) — Deepest

–  Stratum spinosum ( Prickle cell layer)

Stratum granulosum  ( Granular cell layer)

Stratum corneum ( Horny layer ) — Superficial

*Melanocytes are found in — Stratum Basale

*Merkel’s cells are found in — Stratum Basale

*Stratum lucidum is a skin layer located between St. granulosum & St. corneum.

*Stratum corneum is dead layer.

*Hair follicles & sweat glands are found in — Dermis

* Neither raised nor depressed skin lesion Macula ( <1cm ) and Patch ( >1 cm )

*Rain drop pigmentation is characteristic of — Chronic arsenic poisoning.

*Most common type of vitiligo Vitiligo vulgaris

*Nevus causing hypopigmented lesions — Nevus achromicus ( Nevus depigmentosus) , Nevus anemicus

* Nevus causing hyperpigmented lesions — Nevus of ota, Nevus of ito, Becker’s Nevus

*Von zumbusch disease is — Type of pustular psoriasis

*Type of psoriasis associated with streptococcal throat infection — Guttate psoriasis

*Lucio phenomenon seen in — Lepromatous Leprosy

*Most unstable type of leprosy — BB ( Mid borderline )

*Immunofluorescence of Pemphigus vulgaris shows — Fish net pattern

*Treatment of choice in scabies in pregnent woman Sulpher ointment

*Peak wavelength of wood’s lamp is  — 365 nm

*Coral red colour on wood’s lamp is seen in — Erythrasma

*Piebaldism — present at birth & remains unchanged throughout life.

*Acrodermatitis enteropathica is caused by deficiency of — Zinc

*Phrenoderma — due to deficiency of Vitamin A > FFA > Vitamin B/C/E

*HPV responsible for condyloma acuminatum Type 6 & 11

*Causes of scarring alopecia Lichen planus

*Obliteration of ectopic sebaceous gland Fordyce’s disease

*Dermatological sign of carcinoma of stomach Acanthosis nigricans

*Hanging curtain sign is seen in — Pityriasis rosea

*Disease of eccrine gland Miliaria

*Disease of apocrine gland Hidradenitis suppurativa,

*Cafe au lait spot seen in — Neurofibromatosis

*Soft sore is caused by — H. ducreyi

*Roseola infantum caused by — HHV -6

*School of fish OR rail road track appearence — Caused by H. ducreyi

*DOC for Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis Azithromycin > Doxycycline

*Drug causing pigmentation of skin Minocycline

*Which dermatophyte infect skin, hair & nail Trichophyton

*Species of Trichophyton which is zoophilicT. Mentagrophytes

*Target lesions seen in — Erythma multiforme

*Behcet’s disease associated with — HLA B 51

*Lyell’s syndrome TEN (Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis)

*Antigen defect in pemphigus foliaceus Desmoglein 1 (Dsg 1)

*Antigen defect in pemphigus vulgaris —  Desmoglein 3 (Dsg 3)

*Signs in dermatology

* Auspitz Sign — seen in Psoriasis

*Oil Drop Sign — seen in Psoriasis of nails

*Flag sign — seen in Kwashiorkor

* Gottron’s Sign — seen in Dermatomyositis

*Carpet Tack Sign — seen in Discoid Lupus Erythmatous (DLE)

*Groove Sign — seen in Lymphomogranuloma venerum

*Head light sign — seen in Atopic eczema

* Hertoghe’s Sign — seen in Atopic eczema

*Crowe’s Sign — seen in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1)

*Higoumenakis Sign — seen in congenital syphilis

*Dubois Sign  — seen in congenital syphilis

*Wimberger’s Sign — seen in congenital syphilis

*Nikolsky’s Sign — seen in Pemphigus, TEN, SSSS

*Darier’s Sign — seen in cutaneous mastocytosis

*Asboe-Hansen’s Sign — seen in Pemphigus


*Intra-epidermal immunobullous disorder

Pemphigus vulgaris

Pemphigus vegetans

Pemphigus foliaceus

Pemphigus erythmatosus

Paraneoplastic pemphigus


*Sub-epidermal immunobullous disorder

Bullous pemphigoid

Pemphigoid gastationalis

Mucous membrane pemphigoid

Linear IgA disease

epidermolysis bullosa aquisita

Dermatitis herpatiformis


*Diseases showing Koebner’s phenomenon — Erythma multiformie

Lichen planus

Lichen sclerosus



*Causes of Non-scarring alopecia —  Alopecia areata.

                                                                          Anagen effluvium.

                                                                          Androgenetic alopecia.

                                                                          Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis.

                                                                         Telogen effluvium.

                                                                         Trichotillomania (Trichotillosis)